Learners can be visual, auditory, or tactile (kinesthetic)
Demonstration / return demonstration
Case study analysis
May be individualized or in groups
May be computerized
May be media-based or print
American Hospital Association issued the Patient Bill of Rights in 1972 that guaranteed clients the right to information necessary to give informed consent before treatment begins.
Individualized teaching must be documented in client's chart
Alterations for geriatric clients
make sure client has glasses or hearing aid
face the client and use a lower pitched voice
supplement oral presentation with print materials
use large print
provide good lighting
some clients have a hard time seeing color; use black on white or yellow paper
keep sessions short and work with survival-level information initially
repeat often for clients prone to memory loss
break down learning into small steps
use specific, step-by-step directions and have the client redemonstrate them
get frequent feedback regarding client's level of understanding
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)- signed into law in 1996. This law includes important new protections for millions of working Americans and their families who have preexisting medical conditions or might suffer discrimination in health coverage based on a factor that relates to an individual's health. HIPAA places requirements on employer-sponsored group health plans, insurance companies and health maintenance organizations (HMOs). HIPAA includes changes that:
limit exclusions for preexisting conditions
prohibit discrimination against employees and dependents based on their health status
guarantee renewability of health coverage to certain employers and individuals
protect many workers who lose health coverage by providing better access to individual health insurance coverage.
The first-ever federal privacy standards to protect patients' medical records and other health information provided to health plans, doctors, hospitals and other health care providers took effect on April 14, 2003. Developed by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), these new standards provide patients with access to their medical records and more control over how their personal health information is used and disclosed.
The new privacy regulations ensure protection for patients by limiting the ways that health plans, pharmacies, hospitals and other covered entities can use protected medical records and to other individually identifiable health information, whether it is on paper, in computers or communicated orally. Key provisions of these new standards include:
access to medical records
notice of privacy practices
limits on use of personal medical information
prohibition on marketing
stronger state laws
Early and regular antepartal (before-birth) care is critical. First trimester health directly influences the development of organs in embryo and fetus.
To identify risks, nurses need both subjective (client's) and objective (the nurse's own) assessment data.
Prescribed medications, over-the-counter drugs, alcohol and tobacco may lead to problems for the fetus and woman.
Pregnancy diet must include increased calcium, protein, iron and folic acid.
If the client's situation warrants, suggest ways to adapt activity, employment, and travel.
It is helpful if the woman can have the same support person throughout pregnancy and birthing classes.
Maintain safety and asepsis (sterilize instruments; wear gown, gloves, mask) through the labor and birth process to reduce risks to mother and fetus/newborn.
Ideally, same caregivers stay through all stages of labor.
Recognize urgent signs and act promptly.
Constantly assess and analyze problems to prioritize actions.
Reinforce the childbirth preparation techniques practiced by the couple during pregnancy.
Effective teaching during labor must be flexible. Mother will have shorter attention span, increasing discomfort, and emotional responses to labor.
Promote privacy of the woman and support person as much as possible.
Respect the cultural and religious beliefs of the woman and partner.
Involve the family in the birth process as noted in their birth plan or special requests.
Provide for the woman's needs and comfort.
Communicate caring and concern to the woman and her family through therapeutic techniques.
Document assessments, changes in condition and care as promptly as possible.
Teach (by demonstration and praise) self assessment and care. Start soon after birth.
The newborn is first of all a family member.
Share your assessments and plans with parents; welcome their input.
Respect culture and religious beliefs of the family.
Praise the parent's skills.
Media and pamphlets are useful teaching aids if the parent has a chance to discuss them.
Visits and Teachings
Mothers are discharged quickly, so you must teach accordingly.
Home visits and follow-up telephone calls let the nurse and parents discuss adaptations, questions and concerns.
Postpartum teaching should include women's health promotion.
The adolescent mother benefits from developmentally appropriate teaching and referral to community resources, including parenting classes.
Growth and Development
Normally proceed in a regular fashion from simple to complex and in cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns.
Are orderly, directional, predictable, interdependent and complex processes.
Are unique to individuals and their genetic potential.
Occur through conflict and adaptation.
Growth and development are impacted by genetics, environment, health status, nutrition, culture, and family structures and practices.
Growth should be measured and evaluated at regular intervals throughout childhood.
Deviations from normal growth and development should be thoroughly investigated and treated as quickly as possible.
In the care of children, key concepts are anticipatory guidance and prevention of disease.
Major developmental tasks of infancy are: increase in mobility, separation, and establishment of trusting relationships.
In both toddlerhood and adolescence, hallmarks are development of independence and further separation.
Children and adolescents grow rapidly, so nurses must stress optimum nutrition and give anticipatory guidance related to nutrition.
In children over one year of age, the leading cause of death is injuries.
Elder adults must adjust to lessening physical and cognitive abilities. Over 85% have some type of chronic disease.
When elder adults experience cognitive changes, check for possible substance abuse or polypharmacy.
Cognitive impairment can be acute and reversible, or it can be chronic and irreversible.
Up to 60% of older adults have some impairment in performance of activities of daily living.
Some physiologic changes are a normal part of the aging process and do not signal disease.
Elder adults need more time to complete tasks.
Age is a weak predictor of survival in traumatic injury and critical illness.
Health Risks in Elder Adults
Major health problems typically include cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory diseases; diabetes; and cancer.
The elder adult will change social roles, and these changes may affect psychological health, leading to depression.
Elder adults need the same nutrition as other adults, but more bulk and fiber, calcium, and vitamins C and A.
Contraindications for estrogen replacement therapy include
family history of breast or uterine cancer
Elder adults clear drugs from kidney and liver more slowly; so medications have longer half-lives, and they can bring on side effects and toxicity at lower doses.
Health Promotion: Health Assessment
Measure vital signs when the client is at rest
Compare both sides of the body for symmetry
Assess the systems related to the client’s major complaint first
Offer rest periods if client becomes tired
Culture and religious beliefs may play a role in observed differences
Warm hands and equipment such as stethoscope before touching client
Tell client what you are going to do before touching client
Normal variations exist among clients and there is a range of normalcy for all physical findings
Maintain the client’s privacy throughout the examination
Control for environmental factors which may distort findings
Check equipment prior to exam for functioning
Consider growth and developmental needs when assessing specific age groups
Integrate client teaching throughout the exam
Compare blood pressure in arms left versus right
Compare blood pressure with client lying, sitting and standing
Lungs - Airway
Anemic patients may never become cyanotic
Polycythemic patients may be cyanotic, even when oxygenation is normal
Cough results from stimulation of irritant receptors, with implications of either acute or chronic etiology.
Cyanosis indicates decreased available oxygen. Etiology can be either peripheral or central in origin.
Wheezes indicates narrowing/inflammatory process of lower airways
Stridor harsh sound produced near larynx by vibration of structures in upper airway. Classic "barky cough"
Crackles or rales adventitious sounds, usually on inspiration and indicating inflammation