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Managment of care

  1. Concepts of Management and Supervision

    1. Review standards / position statements of the following agencies before delegating any nursing tasks

      1. State board of nursing

      2. Interpretations / position statements of specific board or nursing

      3. Standards of nursing organizations: ANA, NLN, and NCSBN

      4. Policy of health care institutions

    2. Use critical thinking in management situations

  2. Delegation

    1. Definition of delegation: a process by which responsibility and authority for performing tasks are transferred from one individual to another who accepts that authority and responsibility

    2. Delegation involves

      1. Responsibility: an obligation to accomplish a task

      2. Accountability: accepting ownership for the results or lack of

      3. Authority: right to act or empower

    3. Principles of delegation

      1. A nurse can only delegate those tasks for which that nurse is responsible, according to the specific state's nurse practice act

      2. The delegator remains accountable for the task

      3. Along with responsibility for a task, the nurse who delegates must also transfer the authority necessary to complete the task

      4. The delegator knows well the task to be delegated

      5. Delegation is a contractual agreement that is entered into voluntarily

      6. Consider the scope of practices of nursing personnel

        1. registered nurses:

          1. baccalaureate prepared nurses are equipped to care for individuals, families, groups and communities in both structured and unstructured health settings

          2. associate degree prepared nurses are equipped to care for individuals in a structured health care environment

          3. RNs cannot delegate to unlicensed personnel:

            • initial assessment of patients

            • evaluation of patient data

            • nursing judgment

            • patient/family education/evaluation

            • nursing diagnosis/nursing care planning

        2. licensed practical or vocational nurses (LPN/VN) are equipped to assist in implementing a defined plan of care and to perform procedures according to protocol. Assessment skills are directed at differentiating normal from abnormal. Competence is in caring for physiologically stable patients with predictable conditions.

        3. unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) have the most limited scope of practice. They can assist in a variety of direct patient care activities such as bathing, transferring, ambulating, feeding, toileting, obtaining measurements such as vital signs, height, weight and intake and output. They can also perform indirect activities such as housekeeping, transporting and stocking supplies.

    4. Steps to delegation

      1. Define the task

      2. Determine the delegate

        1. is the task within the scope of practice of the delegate?

        2. scope of practice is defined

          1. nurse practice acts: each state defines what nurses may do

          2. standards of practice: the American Nurses Association (ANA) defines standards of practice

        3. organizational policies and job descriptions

        4. does the ability of this caregiver match the needs of the task?

      3. Communicate clearly about expectations regarding the task

        1. state clearly who will do what by when and how, where and why it will be done

        2. state clearly the outcomes you expect

      4. Reach mutual agreement about the task to be completed

        1. the delegator validates with the delegate that an understanding exists regarding what is to be done and the outcomes that are expected

        2. discuss potential problems and solutions

      5. Monitor the task and provide guidance as needed

        1. was the task completed according to specifications?

      6. Evaluate results

        1. was the desired outcome obtained?

        2. in the desired time?

      7. Provide feedback to individual on outcomes performance

        1. review with the delegate what went right as well as what went wrong with the process

    5. Five rights of delegation

      1. Right task

      2. Right circumstances

      3. Right person

      4. Right direction/communication

      5. Right supervision

    1. Client care assignments

      1. Assign the right task

      2. Assign the task to the right person

      3. The PN may assign tasks to the unlicensed assistive personnel or nursing assistants

      4. Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) or nursing assistants cannot delegate to other UAPs or nursing assistants

  1. Performance Improvement / Quality Assurance

    1. Quality definition: the degree to which client care services increase the probability of desired outcomes and reduce the probability of undesired outcomes given the current state of knowledge

    2. Performance improvement/assurance definition: the process of attaining a new level of performance or quality that is superior to any previous one

    3. Total quality management definition: a management philosophy that emphasizes a commitment to excellence throughout the organization

    4. Six characteristics of total quality management

      1. Customer/client focus

      2. Focus on outcomes

      3. Total organizational involvement

      4. Multidisciplinary approach

      5. Use of quality tools and statistics for measurement

      6. Identification of key areas for improvement

    5. Mandated by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations

  2. Nursing Care Delivery Systems

    1. Functional nursing (task nursing)

      1. Needs of clients are broken down into tasks

      2. Tasks are assigned to various levels of health care workers according to licensure and skill

      3. Example: RNs give medications and client nursing assistants give bed baths for one group of clients

    2. Team nursing

      1. Most common nursing-care delivery system

      2. A team of nursing personnel provides total care to a group of clients

      3. Team leaders supervise client-care teams, which usually consist of an RN, PN, and UAP

      4. Team leader reviews clients' plans of care and progress with team members during team conference

    3. Total client care (case method)

      1. An RN is responsible for all aspects of care of one or more client

      2. The PN may be assigned to assist the RN

      3. Currently, this type of care is provided in areas requiring high level of nursing expertise, such as the critical care unit or the post-anesthesia recovery units

    4. Primary nursing

      1. The RN maintains a client load of primary clients

      2. The primary nurse designs, implements and is accountable for the nursing care of those clients during their entire stay on the unit

    5. Practice partnerships

      1. An RN and an assistant (UAP, PN, less-experienced RN, graduate nurse, or nurse intern) agree to be practice partners

      2. Partners work together on same schedule with same group of clients

      3. Senior partner directs the work of the junior partner within the scope of each partner’s practice

    1. Case management

      1. Model for identifying, coordinating, and monitoring the implementation of services needed to achieve desired client outcomes within a specified period of time

      2. Organizes client care by major diagnoses or diagnostic-related groups (DRGs)

      3. A collaborative health care team defines the expected outcomes of care and care strategies for a client population by defining critical paths

      4. A registered nurse manager is assigned to coordinate, communicate, collaborate, problem solve, facilitate and evaluate client care for a group of clients

      5. Case manager usually does not provide direct client care but supervises care provided by licensed and unlicensed nursing personnel according to a critical path
    2. Differentiated practice

      1. Identifies distinct levels of nursing practice based on defined abilities that are incorporated into job descriptions

      2. Structures nursing roles according to education, experience, and competency

    3. Client-centered care

      1. The RN coordinates a team of multifunctional unit-based caregivers

      2. All client care services are unit-based, including admission, discharge, diagnostic testing and support services

      3. Uses UAPs to perform delegated client care tasks

  1. Documentation

    1. Six key aspects of effective documentation
    1. Types of documentation

      1. Problem-oriented medical record (POMR)

      2. Narrative documentation

      3. Focus charting

      4. Charting by exception

    2. Documentation guidelines

      1. Computerized

        1. use the user ID code, name, or password

        2. never lend access ID to another person

        3. maintain privacy and confidentiality of documentation information printed from the computer

      2. Paper - ink

        1. use permanent ink of color according to agency policy

        2. use agency policies for error correction (usually one line drawn through the error, initial and date) and late entries

        3. do not document for others or change documentation for others

        4. include consent for or refusal of treatment, client responses to interventions, calls made to other health care professionals

  1. Establishing Priorities

    1. Prioritizing - decisions of which needs, problems require immediate attention or action and which ones could be delayed until a later time since they are not urgent

    2. Needs that are life-threatening or could result in harm to the client if left untreated are high priorities

    3. Actual problems/needs have higher priority than potential problems/needs

    4. Problems/needs identified by client are of a higher priority

    5. Principles of Maslow or the ABCs may guide decisions

    6. Mutual decision-making for priorities may be made with the client based on the client's needs, desires, and safety

  2. Nurse Practice Acts

    1. Definition: passed by each state legislature to regulate the practice of nursing in that state

    2. Nurse practice acts define

      1. Scope of practice

      2. Education

      3. Licensure

      4. Professional misconduct

        1. negligence

        2. the impaired nurse

        3. the nurse who violates boundaries

    3. Administered by the board of nursing in each state

      1. The nurses must know how their state defines professional misconduct

      2. For professional misconduct, the state board of nursing imposes penalties (in order of severity)

        1. on probation

        2. censured

        3. reprimanded

        4. license suspended

        5. license revoked

  3. Standards of Nursing Practice and Standard of Care

    1. The American Nurses Association (ANA) publishes its Standards of Nursing Practice, which defines the responsibilities of the RN to all clients for quality of care

    2. Each institution sets standards of care, both across the institution and for specific clinical populations

  1. Legal Responsibilities

    1. Definition: legally, a breach of the duty to provide nursing care to the client. A form of malpractice. The unintentional failure of an individual to perform or not perfom an act that a reasonable person would or would not perform in a similar set of circumstances. Malpractice is professional negligence.

    2. Negligence involves four legal concepts:

      1. Duty: nurses have a legal obligation to provide nursing care to clients

        1. must meet a reasonable and prudent standard of care under the circumstances

        2. must deliver care as any other reasonable and prudent nurse of similar education and experience would, under similar circumstances

      2. Breach of duty: failure to provide expected, reasonable standard of care under the circumstances (includes errors of omission or commission)

      3. Proximate cause:

        1. relationship between the breach of duty and the resulting injury

        2. the injured party must prove that the nurse's action or omission led to the injury

      4. Damages: the injury and the monetary award to the plaintiff

        1. example: Mr. X sues Nurse Jones for negligence. Mr. X must prove that Nurse Jones committed a breach of duty and that the breach of duty was the proximate cause of Mr. X's damages.

  1. Professional Misconduct

    1. The impaired professional

      1. Remember that the impaired nurse is compromising client care

      2. Be sure that the problem exists and can be proven

      3. Communicate specific concerns to appropriate persons such as nurse manager or risk manager

      4. Document incidents in terms of behaviors, specific times, dates - be objective

      5. File a report according to the policies and procedures of the institution

    2. Boundary violations

      1. Definition: actions that overstep established interpersonal boundaries to meet the needs of the nurse

      2. Guiding principles in determining professional boundaries

        1. nurse is responsible for setting and keeping boundaries

        2. nurse must avoid simultaneous professional and personal relationship with a client

        3. nurse must avoid flirtation

  2. Client rights

    1. Privacy

      1. Confidential information may only be released by signed consent of the client

      2. Unauthorized release of client data may be an invasion of privacy

      3. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) provides clients with access to their medical records and more control over how their personal health information is used. Provides privacy protection for consumers of health care.

      4. You must release information when a court orders, or when statutes require it (as in child abuse or communicable diseases)

      5. Special regulations apply to release of information about psychiatric illness or HIV

    2. Advance Directives (ADs)

      1. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1990 requires states to provide advance directives as options to clients

      2. Varies by state

      3. Must be witnessed and on file - the only employee of a health care organization who may be the signing's legal witness is a clinical social worker; it is at the discretion of each health care facility as to whether or not this is done. A policy should be written. Always check the policy of your facilty.

      4. Durable power of attorney - appoints a decision maker

      5. Living will - specifies what life prolonging the person wishes

      6. Do not resuscitate (DNR) status

    3. Refusal of treatment - competent clients may refuse treatment, even life-sustaining treatment

    4. Freedom from safety devices/restraints

      1. Physical restraints/safety devices require a signed, dated physician's order specifying the type of restraint/safety device and a time limit

      2. Types of restraints/safety devices

        1. chemical

        2. physical

      3. Use the least restrictive form of restraint/safety device

      4. Know agency guidelines for use of restraints/safety devices

      5. You must document three factors

        1. why you used restraints/safety devices

        2. how the client responded

        3. whether the client needs continued restraints/safety devices

      6. Restraining clients without consent or sufficient justification may be interpreted as false imprisonment

    1. Informed consent

      1. Basic requirements

        1. capacity

        2. voluntariness

        3. information

      2. The client must understand

        1. purpose of the procedure and expected results

        2. anticipated risks and discomforts

        3. potential benefits

        4. any reasonable alternatives

        5. that client may withdraw consent at any time

      3. The care provider has the legal obligation to obtain informed consent for medical treatment, but the nurse should confirm consent and answer the client's questions

    2. Transition planning - recognizes that clients are not discharged from care but moved across the continuum to another level

  1. Ethics in Nursing

    1. Ethics

      1. Science that deals with principles of right and wrong, good and bad

      2. It governs our relationships with others

      3. Based on personal beliefs and values

    2. Principles

      1. Respect for persons

      2. Respect for autonomy

      3. Nonmaleficence and beneficence

      4. Justice

      5. Truthfulness

      6. Fidelity

Nursing practice is governed by legal restrictions and professional standards.

  • What a nurse can do depends on the nurse practice act in the state in which the nurse is licensed.

  • Each state defines what constitutes professional misconduct.

  • The state board of nursing has the authority to impose a penalty for professional misconduct.

  • Penalties include probation, censure, reprimand, suspension or revocation of the license.

  • Standards of nursing practice apply to all nurses in all practice settings.

  • Standards of care are based on facility policy and procedure, nursing education, experience, and publications of professional nursing associations and accrediting groups.

  • To avoid negligence:

    • Know the standard of care

    • Deliver care that meets the standard and follows the facility’s policies and procedures

    • Document care accurately and in a timely manner

  • The only employee of a health care organization who may be the legal witness to the signing of an advance directive is a clinical social worker. It is at the discretion of each health care facility as to whether or not this is done. Always check the policy of your facility. A relative or heir to the estate should never be the witness to the signing of an advance directive.

  • Ethics guide the nurse toward client advocacy and the development of a therapeutic relationship.

  • Ethical dilemmas result from conflicts in values.

  • An effective leader modifies his/her style according to the situational requirements.

  • Final responsibility for any delegated task resides with the RN.

  • The RN must monitor delegated tasks and evaluate the outcomes.